quality of life for its workers while still making a profit. The idea that competition was natural and necessary for social progress was promoted by social Darwinists, whose leading advocate was Herbert Spencer. If no one could claim to own the means of production, then there could be no distinction between owner and worker; all class distinctions would disappear and the workers would be free to distribute the benefits of production more equally. Because of their agenda for revoking the traditional privileges of the aristocracy and the clergy, liberals drew their support primarily from the middle classes (choice E) to whom such privileges were denied. Nineteenth-century liberalism opposed the traditional privileges of the clergy as an anachronism that stood in the way of individual liberty.
The Rise of New Ideologies in the Nineteenth Century - Erenow Grand Ideologies of the Nineteenth Century: British Liberalism Ideologies during the Nineteenth Century essays
16th Century China, Child Labor in the 19th Century, The Nineteenth Century in England,
Early-nineteenth-century liberals had been leery of democracy, arguing that the masses had to be educated before they could usefully contribute the political life of the country. Choice A is incorrect because the abolition of private property was advocated only by communists, not by socialists. Goethes The Sorrows of Young Werther is an example of (A) the anarchist movement (B) socialism (C) early liberalism (D) nationalism (E) the Sturm und Drang movement. Nationalists argued that each nation had natural boundaries, shared cultural traits, and a historical destiny to fulfill. Choice C is incorrect because early-nineteenth-century nationalists had Romantic tendencies, as they emphasized the role that environment played in shaping the character of a nation, and often sentimentalized the past. Which of the following is NOT true of nineteenth-century liberalism? Anarchy had the greatest appeal in those areas of Europe where governments were most oppressive; in the nineteenth century, that meant Russia. Liberalism in the 19th century stemmed from the Enlightenment idea that man possessed a certain set of basic rights and liberties which were conferred to each individual upon their birth and could not be infringed. Explain how liberalism gave birth to republicanism. Industrial Socialism This type of socialism argued that it was possible to have a productive, profitable industrial enterprise without exploiting workers.