d Sy,.; Cote,.; Saavedra,. Many distinct conceptualizations are often lumped together under the umbrella of leadership performance, including outcomes such as leader effectiveness, leader advancement, and leader emergence (Kaiser., 2008). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. "What breaks a leader: The curvilinear relation between assertiveness and leadership". Contrariwise, more democratically inclined theorists have pointed to examples of meritocratic leaders, such as the Napoleonic marshals profiting from careers open to talent.
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Herbert Spencer (1884) (and Karl Marx ) said that the times produce the person and not the other way around. While these aspects may be related, they are different outcomes and their inclusion should depend on the applied or research focus. In prehistoric times, humanity was preoccupied with personal security, maintenance, protection, and survival. Scouller proposed the Three Levels of Leadership model, which was later categorized as an "Integrated Psychological" theory on the Businessballs education website. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers;. Relationship-oriented leaders are focused on developing the team and the relationships. Such a trait enables leaders to be accepted well by the public, use diplomatic measures to solve issues, as well as hold the ability to adapt their social persona to the situation at hand. Situational and contingency theories edit Main articles: Fiedler contingency model, VroomYetton decision model, pathgoal theory, and situational leadership theory Situational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership. Social scientists argued that history was more than the result of intervention of great men as Carlyle suggested. This idea that leadership is utopia: The Social Values of The Idealistic Society based on individual attributes is known as the " trait theory of leadership ".
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